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Slovenia History:

 
 
INTRODUCTION

The history of Slovenia is as colourful as its landscape, spanning around 250,000 years of human habitation. It can't be retold in moments; below it has been summarised to give you an overview of what has transpired in making Slovenia the country that it is today. With drama, death, suspense, oppression, deceit, war, sweet poetry, creativity, victory, innovation, and passion; it has all of the elements that could easily pass for a best seller.

 

 

Present day Slovenia covers an area of 20,273 square kilometres between the Alps, the Adriatic and the Pannonian Plain. With Austria to the north, Italy to the west, Hungary to the east and Croatia to the south. But this wasn't always the case.

 

PREHISTORIC TIMES TO THE CELTS

Present-day Slovenia was long inhabited in prehistoric times, and there is evidence of human habitation some 250,000 years ago. In the 1920s and 1930s, artefacts belonging to Cro-Magnon man were found; pierced bones, bone points, and needles. Perhaps the most important find is a flute discovered in Divje Babe above the Idrija valley, dating from the Wurm glacial age when the area was inhabited by Neanderthals.
The Divje Babe flute is a cave bear femur pierced by spaced holes that was found at the Divje Babe archaeological park located near Cerkno in north-western Slovenia. It has been suggested that it is the world’s oldest known musical instrument, but this is in dispute. The continuing dispute notwithstanding, the artefact remains on prominent public display as a flute in the National Museum of Slovenia (Narodni Muzej Slovenije) in Ljubljana. According to the museum, the alleged flute has been associated with the “end of the middle Pleistocene” and the time of Neanderthals, about 55,000 years ago. Researchers working at the site uncovered more than 600 archaeological finds in at least ten levels, including 20 hearths, the skeletal remains of cave bears, and have studied climate change during the Pleistocene.
In the late Stone and Bronze Ages, the inhabitants of the area were engaged in livestock rearing and farming. Afterwards, during the transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age, the Urnfield culture existed in this region. Fortified hilltop settlements and beautifully-crafted iron objects and weapons were typical of the Hallstatt period (Most na Soči, Vače, Rifnik, St. Vid near Stična).
In the Iron Age, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian and Celtic tribes until the 1st century BC. They formed the first state, called Noricum. The names of many present places (Bohinj, Tuhinj) date from this time, as well as the names of rivers (the Sava, the Savinja, the Drava). Noricum was annexed by the Roman Empire around 10 BCE.
In 2002, more than 4,500 year old remains of pile dwellings were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world. The site is now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. 

 

Neanderthal Man

Neanderthal Man

Worlds oldest musical instrument

Worlds oldest musical instrument

Stone tool

Stone tool

The oldest wooden wheel in the world

The oldest wooden wheel in the world

 

In 2002, more than 4,500 year old remains of pile dwellings were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world.

ROMAN RULE AND SLAV SETTLEMENT

When the Ancient Romans conquered the area, they established the provinces of Pannonia and Noricum and present-day western Slovenia was included directly under Roman Italia as part of the X region Venetia et Histria. The Romans established posts at Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj) and Celeia (Celje), and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was exposed to invasions by the Huns and Germanic tribes during their attacks into Italy. After the departure of the last Germanic tribe - the Langobards - to Italy in 568 CE, the Slavs from the East began to dominate the area. After the successful resistance against the nomadic Asian Avars (from 623 to 626 CE), the Slavic people united with King Samo’s tribal confederation, whose centre was in what is now the Czech Republic. The confederation fell apart in 658 and the Slav people, located in present-day Carinthia, formed the independent duchy of Carantania, based at the Krn Castle, north of today's Klagenfurt (Austria). Until 1414 a special ceremony of princes of Carantania took place, conducted in Slovenian.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Romans established posts at Emona (Ljubljana), Poetovio (Ptuj) and Celeia (Celje), and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia.

 

THE CARANTANIA DUCHY

In the mid 8th century Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians, who began spreading Christianity. Three decades later Carantanians together with the Bavarians came under Frankish rule. At the beginning of the 9th century the Franks removed the complaining Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish feudal system reached the Slovene territory.
The Magyar invasion of the Pannonian Plain in the late 9th century effectively isolated the Slovene territory from the other western Slavs. Thus, the Slavs of Carantania and of Carniola to the south began developing into an independent nation of Slovenes. After the victory of Emperor Otto I over the Magyars in 955 CE, Slovene territory was divided into a number of border regions of the Holy Roman Empire. Carantania, being the most important, was elevated into the Duchy of Great Carantania in 976 CE (the 'Freising Manuscripts', a few prayers written in Slovene, date from this period). In the late Middle Ages the historic states of Štajerska (Styria), Koroška (Carinthia), Kranjska (Carniola), Gorizia, Trieste and Istria were formed from the border regions and incorporated into the medieval German state.

The installation of the Dukes in Carinthia

The installation of the Dukes in Carinthia

The Dukes chair

The Dukes chair

The Feudal System

The Feudal System

Europe in the dark ages

Europe in the dark ages

 

800-1000 First independent state - State of Carinthia (Karantanija), established in the 7th century and lasted almost two hundred years. The enthronement ceremony of our princes on the "Duke's Stone" (at the Gosposvetsko Field, today in Carinthia, Austria) inspired Thomas Jefferson when he was writing the Declaration of Independence in 1776. 
1000 The Freising Manuscript form the 10th century is the first record of a Slovene text. Three liturgies comprise the oldest texts written in any of the Slavic languages.
12th century

Herman of Carinthia (1100 - 1160) mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, translator of the Koran and astrological writings, the first Slovene scientist to acquire a European reputation. His philosophical treatise, De essentiis (On Essences), written in 1143 was reprinted by the Germans in 1982.

 

HABSBURG RULE, THE COUNTS OF CELJE, TURKISH INCURSIONS & PEASANT REVOLTS

In the 14th century most of the territory of Slovenia was taken over by the Habsburgs. The counts of Celje, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state counts, were their powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century. Thereafter intensive German colonisation diminished Slovene lands, and by the 15th century they were of a similar size to the present-day Slovene ethnic territory.
At the end of the middle Ages life was fraught with Turkish raids and the introduction of new taxes. In 1515 a peasant revolt spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory and in 1572-3 the united Slovene-Croatian peasant revolts wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.

Celje Castle

Celje Castle

 

The execution of Matija Gubec, leader of the Slovene-Croatian peasant revolt

The execution of Matija Gubec, leader of the Slovene-Croatian peasant revolt

The Ottoman army battling the Habsburgs

Predjama Castle

Predjama Castle

 

1490 Discovered in 1492, the mercury mine in Idrija was the second largest mercury mine in the world for centuries and stimulated the development of science, medicine, and technology in Slovenia and in Europe. Its continuous 500 year production was a powerful stimulus to the development of science, medicine and technology not only in Slovenia, but also in the greater European continent.

 

THE REFORMATION, THE FIRST BOOKS IN SLOVENE

The Reformation, represented mainly by Lutheranism, spread across Slovene territory in the middle of the 16th century. This helped to establish the underpinnings of the Slovene literary language. In 1550 Primož Trubar published the first two books in Slovene, Katekizem and Abecednik ('Catechism' and 'Abecedary'). The Protestants published around 50 books in Slovene, including the first Slovene grammar book and a translation of the Bible by Dalmatin in 1584. At the beginning of the 17th century Protestantism was suppressed by monarchic absolutism as well as by the Counter Reformation of the Catholic Church which introduced the new aesthetics of Baroque culture. The Enlightenment in Central Europe, particularly under the Habsburg monarchy, was a progressive period for the Slovene people. It hastened economic development and facilitated the appearance of a Slovene middle class. Under the reign of Emperor Joseph II (1765-1790) many societal infrastructures were established, including land reforms, the feudal system, the modernisation of the Church and compulsory primary education conducted in the Slovene language (1774). The start of cultural-linguistic activities by Slovene intellectuals of the time brought about a national revival and the birth of the Slovene nation in the modern sense of the word. Before the Napoleonic Wars Slovenes acquired some secular literature, along with the first historical study based on the ethnic principle by Anton Tomaž Linhart and the first comprehensive grammar by Jernej Kopitar.

The oldest document in Slovene

The oldest document in Slovene

Emperor Joesph II

Emperor Joesph II

Martin Luther - father of the Reformation

Martin Luther - father of the Reformation

Primož Trubar

Primož Trubar

 

1550 Half a century of Protestant Reformation gave Slovenes a systematic orthography, alphabet and standardized language and the first book appeared in 1550 by Primoz Trubar (1508-1586) a protestant reformist. Only a few years later Slovenes could read the Old and New Testaments in their mother tongue.
1586 Slovenes received their first complete translation of the bible in 1586. With its publication, Slovenes ranked among the only twelve nations of the world that had such translation in the 16th century. 
17th century J.V. Valvasor (1641-1693) the first really well known Slovene scientist, reveals in his famous work "The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola" (1689) the fact that skis were already familiar to the Slovene people in his day. 
Among Slovenia's many historical legacies, its original skis arouse special respect. One of the oldest means of transportation on the high Bloke plateau in central Slovenia, they were first documented in the 17th century. Their autochthonous character and originality prove the assertion that Slovenes are among the oldest skiers in Central Europe. While the people of the Bloke plateau spent the winter days on them using them to transport goods, overcome distances, and go about their work, at the same time they also used them for various games and pure pleasure. 
1689 Janez Vajkard Valvasor - historian and member of the British Royal Society. His book "The Glory of the Duchy of Carniola", published in 1689 provided a vivid description of the Slovene lands of the time. In four thick and richly illustrated books he described nature and life in the greater part of Slovenia and neighbouring countries. Through his study of the complex mechanism of the intermittent Cerknica lake, Valvasor became a member of the Royal Society in London.
1793 Jurij Vega (1754-1802) 
Slovene mathematician Jurij Vega was the first in the world to calculate the mathematical constant π (Ludolf's number) to an accuracy of 140 decimal places. In 1794 in Leipzig he published a manual Thesaurus logarithmorum completus which has been used for accurate calculations in astronomy, geodesy and other pure sciences for almost two centuries, i.e., until the recent introduction of electronic calculators. Even more famous is his German-Latin Small Book of Logarithms (1793), accurate up to seven decimal digits, and is one of the most widely used mathematical books in the world. In 1966, its 102nd German edition was printed and its English and Russian translations have gone through over 50 editions. After Baron Jurij Vega one of the craters at Mare australis on the Moon was named.

 

19TH CENTURY

When Napoleon captured the south-eastern Slovene regions (consisting of Upper Carinthia, Gorizia, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia and Carniola and Croatia south of the river Sava), the Illyrian Provinces of the French state (1809-1813) were created and Ljubljana was made their capital. The short-lived period of French rule which followed changed the taxation system and improved the position of the Slovene language in schools; it did not, however, abolish feudalism. It was at this point in time that France Prešeren, a poet representative of Slovene Romanticism, asserted the right to a unified written language for all Slovenes, defending it against attempts to blend it into the artificial Illyrian language of the Southern Slavs. The first Slovene political programme, called Unified Slovenia, emerged during the European Spring of Nations in 1848. It demanded that all the lands inhabited by Slovenes should be united into Slovenia, an autonomous province with its own provincial assembly within the framework of the Habsburg monarchy, where Slovene would be the official language. In 1867 Slovene representatives received a majority of votes in the provincial elections. In the same year, the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was established and split into two equal parts. Most of the territory of present-day Slovenia remained in the Austrian part of the monarchy, while Pomurje fell into the Hungarian part. The Slovenes in Veneto had already decided in 1866 to join Italy. The idea of a unified Slovenia remained the central theme of the national-political efforts of the Slovene nation within the Habsburg monarchy for the next 60 years. By the end of the 19th century industry had developed considerably in Slovenia and the population had become as socially differentiated as in other European nations.

Napoleon

Napoleon

Part of poem by France Preseren

Part of poem by France Preseren

France Prešeren

France Prešeren

Map of Austro-Hungarian Empire

Map of Austro-Hungarian Empire

 

1827 The first boat tests in the world using a propeller were very probably made around 1820 on the Krka River near Kostanjevica in the Dolenjska region by a Slovenian of Czech extraction. The inventor Josef Ressel (1793-1857) obtained a permit for use in Trieste, where 13 models of his propeller are on display. His invention changed maritime navigation considerably.
1846 (1847) At the end of 1846, a collection of poems was published in Ljubljana such as Slovenes had never seen before and have not seen since, Poezije, the work of Slovenia's greatest poet France Preseren (1800-1848).
1879 Jozef Stefan (1835-1893) one of the most prominent physicists of the 19th century, was the only Slovene scientist who discovered any of the fundamental natural laws - the law of heat radiation (1879), named for him the Stefan law.
  Due to limited opportunities, between 1880 and 1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e., one in six) emigrated to other countries, mostly to the United States, but also to South America, Germany, Egypt, and to larger cities in the Austria-Hungary, especially Zagreb and Vienna.

 

WW I, THE STATE OF SLOVENES, SERBS, CROATS & THE KINGDOM OF YUGOSLAVIA

The First World War brought heavy casualties to Slovenia, particularly on the bloody Soča front in Slovenia's western border area. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted in the Austro-Hungarian Army, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from Gorizia and Gradisca were resettled in refugee camps in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousands died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918. Entire areas of the Slovenian Littoral were destroyed. In 1917, as the imperialistic policies of the superpowers threatened to split Slovene territory among a number of states, Slovene, Croatian and Serbian representatives brought before the Vienna Parliament the May Declaration, which advocated the creation of a unified state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs living within Habsburg territory. This declaration was rejected, but following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the war, a National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs took power in Zagreb on 6 October 1918. On the 29th of October independence was declared by the Croatian parliament and by a national gathering in Ljubljana, declaring the establishment of the new state of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs. Despite disagreements, and against a background of pressure from the Serbs for unification and moves by the Italians to take more territory than had been agreed, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was proclaimed on the 1st of December 1918 in Belgrade by Alexander Karađorđević, Prince-Regent for his father, Peter I of Serbia. Eight years later in 1929 the new state became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia under the personal dictatorship of the king. Following a plebiscite in 1920, the Slovene part of Carinthia was annexed to Austria.
The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main centre of industrial production: in comparison to Serbia, for example, in Slovenia the industrial production was four times greater, and it was twenty-two times greater than in Yugoslav Macedonia. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with a rapid economic growth in the 1920s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the 1929 economic crisis and Great Depression.
Following a plebiscite in October 1920, the Slovene-speaking southern Carinthia was ceded to Austria. With the Treaty of Trianon, on the other hand, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was awarded the Slovene-inhabited Prekmurje region, formerly part of Austro-Hungary.
Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighbouring states: Italy, Austria and Hungary, were subjected to policies of forced assimilation. In the case of Fascist Italy, they suffered violent Fascist Italianization.
In exchange for joining the Allied Powers in the First World War, the Kingdom of Italy, under the secret Treaty of London (1915) and later Treaty of Rapallo (1920), was granted rule over much of the Slovene territories. These included a quarter of the Slovene ethnic territory, including areas that were exclusively ethnic Slovene. The population of the affected areas was approximately 327,000 of the total population of 1.3 million Slovenes.
A quarter of the Slovene ethnic territory and approximately 327.000 out of a total population of 1.3 million Slovenes were subjected to forced Italianization. The Slovene minority in Italy (1920-1947) lacked any minority protection under international or domestic law. Clashes between the Italian authorities and Fascist squads on one side, and the local Slovene population on the other, started as early as 1920, culminating with the burning of the Narodni dom, the Slovenian National Hall of Trieste.
After the Fascist takeover in Italy in 1922, they promoted a policy of violent Fascist Italianization, as the new rulers sought to eradicate the Slovene middle class and the intelligentsia. They abolished education in Slovene in 1923, and required the Italianization of Slovene surnames and personal names between 1926 and 1932. By 1927, the government banned all Slovene associations, and prohibited all public use of Slovene. Police violently attacked opponents of the Fascist regime. By the mid-1930s, around 70,000 Slovenes had fled the region, mostly to Yugoslavia and nations of South America.
After all Slovene minority organizations in Italy had been destroyed, the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR was formed in 1927 in order to fight Fascist violence. The anti-Fascist guerrilla movement continued throughout the late 1920s and 1930s

Slovene National Hall in Trieste - destroyed by fascists 13th April 1920

Slovene National Hall in Trieste - destroyed by

fascists 13th April 1920

The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Serbs and Croats at Congress Square, Ljubljana

The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Serbs and Croats at Congress Square, Ljubljana

Alexander Karađorđević - Prince-Regent of Serbia

Alexander Karađorđević - Prince-Regent of Serbia

Ukanc WW1 Military Cemetery

Ukanc WW1 Military Cemetery

 

1929 Herman Potocnik (1892 - 1929)
A Slovene contributed the first mathematically supported concept for a space station of satellite circling the earth at the same speed as a point below it on the Equator. He published his findings under the pseudonym "Herman Noordung" in his book Das Problem der Befährung des Weltraum (Berlin, 1929). 

 

WW II AND THE REPUBLIC OF YUGOSLAVIA

Yugoslavia was invaded by Axis Powers on the 6th of April 1941. A coup d'état in the Yugoslav government had ended Yugoslavia's participation in the Tripartite Pact and enraged Adolf Hitler. Territory in Yugoslavia was quickly divided among German, Italian, and Hungarian control, and the Nazis soon annexed Lower Styria as Untersteiermarkto the "Greater Reich". About 46,000 Slovenes in the Rann (Brežice) Triangle region were forcibly deported to eastern Germany for potential Germanization or forced labour beginning in November 1941.
On the 27th of April 1941 in the Province of Ljubljana, the National Liberation Front was organized to carry out a liberation struggle, form the Slovene partisan army, and create structures of a future state in liberated areas. The Province of Ljubljana saw the deportation of 25.000 people, which equaled 7.5% of the total population. The operation, one of the most drastic in the Europe, filled up many Italian concentration camps, such as Rab concentration camp, in Gonars concentration camp, Monigo (Treviso), Renicci d'Anghiari, Chiesanuova and elsewhere.
Slovenes were transported to several camps in Saxony, where they were forced to work on German farms or in factories run by German industries from 1941–1945. The forced labourers were not always kept in formal concentration camps, but often just vacant buildings where they slept until the next day's labour took them outside these quarters. Toward the end of the war, these camps were liberated by American and Soviet Army troops. Repatriated refugees returned to Yugoslavia to find their homes in shambles.
Some Slovenes collaborated with the occupying powers, with the German-sponsored Slovene Home Guard having 21,000 members at the peak of its power. More than 30,000 partisans died fighting Axis forces and their collaborators; during WWII, approximately 8 percent of Slovenes died.
In 1945, Yugoslavia liberated itself and shortly thereafter became a nominally federal Communist state. Slovenia joined the federation as a socialist republic; its own Communist Party was formed in 1937. After the withdrawal of the Axis forces, the vast majority of the indigenous German population was deported or fled to Austria and Germany.
A number of suspects, known to be on the list of Italian war criminals that Yugoslavia, Greece and Ethiopia requested an extradition of, at the end of the WW II never saw anything like the Nuremberg trial, because the British government with the beginning of the Cold War saw in Pietro Badoglio, who was also on the list, a guarantee of an anti-communist post-war Italy.The survivors received no compensation from the Italian state after the war.
Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito-Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc. In 1947, Italy ceded most of the Julian March to Yugoslavia, and Slovenia regained the Slovenian Littoral. From the 1950s, Slovenia enjoyed a relatively wide autonomy.
Between 1945 and 1948, a wave of political repressions took place in Slovenia and in Yugoslavia. By 1947, all private property had been nationalised. Between 1949 and 1953, a forced collectivisation was attempted. After its failure, a policy of gradual liberalisation followed. A new economic policy, known as workers self-management, started to be implemented under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Edvard Kardelj, the main theorist of the Yugoslav Communist Party. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito, together with other leaders, founded the Non-Aligned Movement.

Edvard Kardelj

Edvard Kardelj

Josip Broz (Tito)

Josip Broz (Tito)

Maribor 1941

Maribor 1941

Ljubljana

Ljubljana

 

Following the re-establishment of Yugoslavia during World War II, Slovenia became part of Federal Yugoslavia. A socialist state was established, but because of the Tito-Stalin split in 1948, economic and personal freedoms were broader than in the Eastern Bloc.

 

THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE

Slovenia's economy developed rapidly, particularly in the 1950s when the country was strongly industrialised. Despite restrictive economic and social legislation within Yugoslavia, Slovenia managed to preserve a high level of economic development with a skilled workforce, working discipline and organisation. After the economic reform and further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965 and 1966, Slovenia was approaching a market economy. Its domestic product was 2.5 times the average, which strengthened national confidence among the Slovenes. After the death of Tito in 1980, the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained. Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.

In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition of the magazine Nova revija. Demands for democratisation and increase of Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defense of Human Rights, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
In September 1989, numerous constitutional amendments were passed to introduce parliamentary democracy to Slovenia. The same year Action North united both the opposition and democratized communist establishment in Slovenia as the first defense action against attacks by Milošević's supporters, leading to Slovenian independence. On 7 March 1990, the Slovenian Assembly changed the official name of the state to the "Republic of Slovenia". In April 1990, the first democratic election in Slovenia took place, and the united opposition movement DEMOS led by Jože Pučnik emerged victorious.
These revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated by almost one year the Revolutions of 1989 in Eastern Europe, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On the 23rd of December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia. On the 25th of June 1991, Slovenia became independent through the passage of appropriate legal documents.On the 27th of June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, which led to the Ten-Day War. On the 7th of July, the Brijuni Agreement was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence. In the end of month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia.
In December 1991, a new constitution was adopted, followed in 1992 by the laws on denationalisation and privatization. The members of the European Union recognised Slovenia as an independent state on the15th of January 1992, and the United Nations accepted it as a member on the 22nd of May 1992.
Slovenia joined the European Union on the 1st of May 2004. Slovenia has one Commissioner in the European Commission, and seven Slovene parliamentarians were elected to the European Parliament at elections on the 13th of June 2004. In 2004 Slovenia also joined NATO. Slovenia subsequently succeeded in meeting the Maastricht criteria and joined the Eurozone (the first transition country to do so) on the 1st of January 2007. It was the first post-Communist country to hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, for the first six months of 2008. On the 21st of July 2010, it became a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.

Jože Pučnik

Jože Pučnik

10 day war

10 day war

 

 

 

The European Union recognised Slovenia in January 1992, and the UN accepted it as a member in May 1992. Slovenia joined the European Union and NATO on the 1st of May 2004.

 

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The Financial Times describes Slovenia as modern Europe's most delightful small country…

Ljubljana voted 5th most idyllic place to live in Europe
In a recent article published by Forbes Magazine, Ljubljana has been voted the 5th most idyllic place to live in Europe, described as a “little Paris” with hints of Art Nouveau - a melting pot of culture at the crossroads of the German, Latin and Slavic worlds.


National Geographic Traveler Magazine is “rendered speechless” by Slovenia’s “sublime landscape”
On a recent tour around the borders of the whole country, Traveler is seduced by stunning landscapes and an intriguing mix of cultures.

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